By Guest Blogger Matti Neustadt Storie
It’s that time of year again – time to be thankful for all that we have and to reflect on those who don’t have as much. Many people consider working at soup kitchens and donating to local food banks as a way to help. But what liability attaches to those who donate food? Can you get rid of that can of smoked oysters that’s been in the back of the pantry for four years? What if the food you donate is bad? Or people get sick after eating it?
The federal government and most states have considered this and do not want fear of litigation to prevent people from donating to food banks. “Good Samaritan” food donation laws that immunize good-faith donors of food from both criminal penalty and civil liability exist at both the state and federal level. The Bill Emerson Good Samaritan Food Donation Act (the “Act”) is the federal law, and most states (such as Washington) model their acts after it. The Act limits the liability of food donors absent gross negligence or willful misconduct. Except in cases where a donor donates food that does not meet state or federal regulations regarding quality or labeling, it is unlikely that a contractual release or waiver would be effective in overriding these limitations because of public policy concerns. Other states (such as Oregon) have similar laws, but with slightly different language.
The Act states that a person is not subject to civil or criminal liability arising from the nature, age, packaging, or condition of “apparently wholesome food” that the person donates in good faith to a nonprofit organization for ultimate distribution to needy individuals (e.g., a food bank). “Apparently wholesome food” is defined as “food that meets all quality and labeling standards imposed by federal, state, and local laws and regulations even though the food may not be readily marketable due to appearance, age, freshness, grade, size, surplus, or other conditions.” So that four-year-old can of smoked oysters may still be a valid donation!
The Act is drafted very broadly, and the immunity from civil or criminal liability is regardless of who is making the claim – neither the food bank nor the ultimate consumer of the food will be able to sue to donor. Furthermore, the Act indicates that it cannot be construed to create liability due to noncompliance with any aspect of the law. This makes it unlikely that a court will find liability based on mere negligence, for example, if a food product was negligently mislabeled such that it would not technically be “apparently wholesome food.” Absent gross negligence or willful misconduct, no liability will attach.
That said, don’t go digging up your recalled spinach and beef from the past year. Liability may still be imposed when the donor acts in bad faith, with gross negligence, recklessness, or intentionally. And no, that doesn’t mean you can draft a waiver to have the food bank accept the recalled food – in most states a pre-injury release or waiver will not prevent a defendant from being held liable for damages due to gross negligence under public policy arguments. Throw out food that is known to be spoiled, contaminated, or otherwise unfit for human consumption. One would hope this common sense advice is so obvious that it need not be said, but you never know ….
So pack up your excess pantry food – or go out and get some fresh stuff – for your local food bank. Nonperishable foods such as dried beans, peanut butter, canned soups, canned vegetables, and dried pastas are always welcomed. Many food banks will also take perishable foods such as hot dogs, ground beef, butter, eggs, and even (in some states) processed game. If you were lucky enough to bag wild game this season but can’t fit it all in your freezer, contact your local food bank to see if they can accept it. And if you live in southern Illinois or the St. Louis metro area, contact the Food Pantry at St. Mark in Belleville. Tell them Pastor Ron’s daughter blogged about them – Merry Christmas, Dad!